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Dysplasia disordered cell growth; a proliferation of precancerous cells. Ex – Cervical

intraepithelial neoplasia

• Arises from long-standing pathologic hyperplasia or metaplasia
• Reversible
• If dysplasia persists, it can progress to cancer.

Aplasia Failure of cell production during embryogenesis. Ex – unilateral renal

agenesis (failure to make 1 kidney)

Hypoplasia decrease in cell production in embryogenesis. Results in the relatively small

organ. Ex – streak ovary in Turner syndrome.




. What is sjogren syndrome?
Type IV (lymphocyte mediated) autoimmune destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands with
resulting fibrosis.

Sjogren syndrome
12. What are clinical presentation of Sjogren syndrome?
Dry eyes, dry mouth and recurrent dental carries (bacteria accumulates as teeth aren’t washed) in
older woman.

– Parotids may be enlarged due to fibrosis.
– “Can’t chew cracker, dirt in my eyes”
13. How do you diagnose Sjogren syndrome?
– Presence of ANA is sensitive
Presence of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies is specific – (Anti SSA and anti SSB antibodies –
Sjogren syndrome A and sjogren syndrome B)

14. What other conditions is Sjogren syndrome associated with?
– Other autoimmune disorders – especially rheumatoid arthritis
High risk for B-cell lymphoma (HY) – unilateral enlargement of partoid gland late in disease is
indicative of B-cell lymphoma.
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