Holistic Approaches to Infectious Diseases PDF
Holistic Approaches to Infectious Diseases PDF a holistic approach to the prevention and control of infectious diseases from enteric pathogens. Holistic approaches to infectious diseases deal with different concepts or approaches to take care of the challenging diseases. According to the World Health Organization reports, infectious and parasitic diseases are the second leading cause of death in the world, and the leading cause of infectious disease is due to the enteric pathogens and they cause almost two million deaths every year. The first four chapters of the book deal with different approaches such as ayurvedic, bioinformatic, fungal, and metal-based treatment to diseases. The remaining chapters fully focus on various approaches to HIV and AIDS—one of the most challenging infectious disease to mankind.
Ancient medical practices provide novel paradigms to understand chronic neurodegenerative diseases due to their unique outlook of disease pathology. Ayurveda is the ancient medical wisdom of India that provides novel and powerful insights for the preemptive and therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Ayurveda describes the disease pathology as being derived from the accumulation of vata or air in the brain. There are also traditional formulations composed of several herbs whose combined action against various aspects of the disease pathology effectively rescues the symptoms of the disease. It has been shown that natural therapies are equally or more effective than modern medicines with a longer efficacy and zero side effects.
Various microscopic organisms live harmlessly inside the body and on the surface of the skin. However, certain types of fungus that are normally harmless, on overgrowth, can cause superficial and systemic infections, which are more commonly seen in those people undertaking antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressant drugs and contraceptives. This also prevails in people with endocrine disorders, immune diseases, diabetes and others diseases, such as AIDS, tuberculosis, major burns and leukemia, especially, found in obese people with excessive skin folds.
Alternative medicine is an age-old tradition and a proven skill which is presently entering the mainstream, holding promises for combating various dreadful diseases in which our modern medicines have failed.
Though traditional medicine has been developed more by observation, practice and skill rather than scientific proven mechanism, still, the medicinal effectiveness is too broad and effective to be ignored. Recent advances in holistic medicinal research are towards uncovering the molecular mechanism of inhibition. Advances in biology and biotechnology have greatly improved our understanding of the human system and mode of drug-target interaction.
To aid with these technologies, computational approaches termed bioinformatics play an important role. Genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, data mining, text mining, network construction, expression studies, etc. are some areas of bioinformatics which when interconnected interpret various important information on the medical aspects and opens up challenges and solutions towards personalized medicine and drug discovery.
From Chapter 5 onwards the chapters concentrate on HIV and AIDS and its recent trends and treatment regimes, case studies, etc. The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a deadly disease of the human immune system that is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As per the current understanding of AIDS, in the initial stage of infection, a person experiences a brief period of influenza like illness. Later in the subsequent stages, this is typically followed by a prolonged period without any significant symptoms. As the illness progresses, it interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections OIs and tumors that do not usually affect people who have efficient working immune systems. Worldwide, about 33.2 million people live with AIDS and about 2.1 million AIDS-related deaths occur each year including 3,30,000 children.
Though a breakthrough has been reported, so far there is no cure for AIDS, and this disease is endemic in many parts of the world and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The old wisdom of ‘prevention is better than cure’ is truly applicable in the case of HIV/AIDS transmission. The most common HIV defining and related cancers in children are: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and leyomyosarcoma (mainly in developed countries).
Despite progress in the treatment and survival of childhood cancer globally, the need for adapted protocols and randomized trials for HIV-related malignancies in children remains a priority. The awareness and impact of HIV/AIDS is different in developed countries and developing countries. Various studies show that about 75% of infected people are aware of their HIV sero status in the USA and Europe, while only 10–20% in Indians.
There are many factors attributing to this, which include limited access to health care facilities by the population, lack of basic infrastructure for early diagnosis of HIV, which requires well-established laboratories, lack of funds to support awareness or preventive campaigns as well as the specific treatment like highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As reported by certain investigators, the spectrum of OI and the prevailing HIV sero-status are expected to change as a result of HAART. Hence an early detection and diagnosis of OI may help in effective disease management. Antiretroviral therapy mainly consists of drugs that are capable of reducing the disease burden on the infected individuals and helps in preventing opportunistic infections that are often the cause of death among HIV patients.
The groups of drugs range from entry inhibitors to maturation inhibitors, which aim at terminating the further development of HIV by acting at different stages of its life cycle.
The Government of India established a National AIDS Control Program (NACP) to combat the HIV epidemic.
During NACP I (1992), there was increased awareness about HIV/AIDS, particularly among the urban population, and subsequent successful intervention programs and the strengthening of STDs clinics across the country were major achievements. During NACP II, the classification of states has focused on the vulnerability of states, with states being classified as high and moderate prevalence and high and moderate vulnerability. The primary goal of NACP III is to halt and reverse the epidemic in India over the next five years by integrating program for prevention, care, support and treatment. Community Care Centre (CCC) is a comprehensive facility-providing medical, counseling, referral and outreach service to the registered PLHIV.
The overall goal of the program is to improve the survival and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Envisioned as a home away from home, CCC is a facility for providing accessible, affordable, and sustainable counseling, support, and treatment to PLHIV.
With the medical services being an integral and important part of the program, CCCs have a critical role in helping PLHIV gain easy access to ART treatment and counseling on primary prevention, nutrition, drug adherence, etc.
The main functions of these CCCs are to provide treatment to the registered PLHIV on various types of opportunistic infections/side effects, providing quality of counseling, providing home a based care through outreach component and LFU tracking as per the list given by ART Centers. Currently, 35 CCCs are in functional among five states and one union territory of India. A total of 66,471 PLHIV were registered with the CCCs and availing various services till December 2012 for smooth implementation of the program.
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HLFPPT has been monitoring and providing constant technical support to the Community Care Centers (CCCs) scattered among the above-said states.
In this book, topics on new approaches to infectious diseases, recent trends in HIV AIDS, ongoing treatments, case studies and the major achievements of the Government against this deadly disease are discussed in a lucid manner, and these aspects are presented in a readily accessible form. Each chapter provides an in-depth array of knowledge satisfying persons related to this field like researchers, doctors, students and professionals.
Holistic Approaches to Infectious Diseases PDF