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MCI/ FMGE AFMG Orthopedics notes free PDF download

MCI/ FMGE AFMG Orthopedics notes free PDF download

MCI/ FMGE AFMG notes free PDF download

MCI/ FMGE AFMG Orthopedics notes free PDF download The biochemical pathways in cell injury can be organized around a few general principles:
• Responses to injurious stimuli depend on the type of injury, duration, and severity.
• The consequences of injury depend on the type, state, and adaptability of the injured cell.
• Cell injury results from perturbations in any of five essential cellular elements:

ATP production (mostly through effects on mitochondrial aero-
bic respiration) Mitochondrial integrity independent of ATP production Plasma membrane integrity, responsible for ionic and osmotic homeostasis Protein synthesis, folding, degradation, and refoldingIntegrity of the genetic apparatusThe intracellular mechanisms of cell injury fall into one of six general pathways  Structural and biochemical elements of the cell are so closely interrelated that regardless of the locus of initial injury, secondary effects rapidly propagate through other elements.

Free radicals are unstable, partially reduced molecules with unpaired electrons in outer orbitals that make them particularly reactive with other molecules. Although other elements can have free radical forms, O2-derived free radicals (also called reactive
oxygen species or ROS) are the most common in biological systems.

MCI/ FMGE AFMG Orthopedics notes free PDF download

The major forms are superoxide anion (O2 one extra electron),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, two extra electrons), hydroxyl ions(OHthree extra electrons) and peroxynitrate ion (ONOO- formed by interactions of nitric oxide [NO] and O2 Free radicals readily propagate additional free radical formation with other molecules in an autocatalytic chain reaction that often breaks chemical bonds. Thus, free radicals damage lipids (peroxidizing double bonds and causing chain breakage), proteins (oxidizing and fragmenting peptide bonds), and nucleic acids (causing single strand breaks.

MCI/ FMGE AFMG Orthopedics notes free PDF download

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