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Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition 7e 2019 [PDF]

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition 7e 2019 [PDF]

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition 7e 2019 [PDF]
Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition 7e 2019
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 Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition

Routes of Drug Administration

The route of administration is determined by properties of the drug (for example, water or lipid solubility, ionization) and by the therapeutic objectives (for example, the need for a rapid onset, the need for long-term treatment, or restriction of delivery to a local site).

Major routes of drug administration include enteral, parenteral, and topical, among others.

Here we will only discuss the Enteral Adminstration

Enteral administration (administering a drug by mouth) is the most common, convenient, and economical method of
drug administration.

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Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition 7e 2019 [PDF]

The drug may be swallowed, allowing oral delivery, or it may be placed under the tongue (sublingual) or between the gums and cheek (buccal), facilitating direct absorption into the bloodstream.

[dropcap] Oral [/dropcap]

Oral administration provides many advantages. Oral drugs are easily self-administered, and toxicities and/overdose of oral drugs may be overcome with antidotes, such as activated charcoal.

However, the pathways involved in oral drug absorption are the most complicated, and the low gastric pH inactivates some drugs. A wide range of oral preparations is available including enteric-coated and extended-release preparations.

[dropcap]Enteric[/dropcap]

An enteric coating is a chemical envelope that protects the drug from stomach acid, delivering it instead to the less
acidic intestine, where the coating dissolves and releases the drug. Enteric coating is useful for certain drugs (for
example, omeprazole) that are acid labile, and for drugs that are irritating to the stomach, such as aspirin.

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Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology Seventh Edition

Extended-release (abbreviated ER, XR, XL, SR, etc.) medications have special coatings or ingredients that control
drug release, thereby allowing for slower absorption and prolonged duration of action.

ER formulations can be dosed less frequently and may improve patient compliance.

In addition, ER formulations may maintain concentrations within the therapeutic range over a longer duration, as opposed to immediate-release dosage forms,may result in larger peaks and troughs in plasma concentration. ER formulations are advantageous for drugs
with short half-lives.

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For example, the half-life of oral morphine is 2 to 4 hours, and it must be administered six times daily to provide continuous pain relief. However, only two doses are needed when extended-release tablets are used.

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