Complications in Neurosurgery by Anil Nanda 2019
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Complications in Neurosurgery
This is one of the 282 laws that constitute the Code of Hammurabi,
a Babylonian king who ruled from 1792 to 1750 BC. His decrees were inscribed on a stone pillar after his rule, and several of his rulings pertained to the practice of medicine, including the enacting of a heavy penalty for a surgical complication. It is a wonder that anyone would choose to perform surgery with such a possibility at a time when morbidity and mortality likely were very high. This punishment was still less severe than that of being caught committing theft, for which the penalty was death.The earliest evidence of surgical procedures is from trephinations performed approximately 12,000 years ago in the Mesolithic era.
The actual reason for these surgeries is unknown and may have been for ritualistic purposes, but there have been examples found from ancient civilizations throughout the world From ancient Egypt, the Edwin Smith papyrus, which dates back to approximately 1700 to 1600 BC, is the oldest known medical text
and detailed 48 cases of surgical pathologies and their management,
including those of injuries of the cranium and spine. These treat-
ments largely involved stabilization to allow healing with time.
The Ebers papyrus (circa 1550 BC) was more encouraging of surgical intervention and included descriptions of procedures for the removal of tumors and abscesses